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While it is difficult to define animal welfare, the current most widely accepted definition internationally encompasses the "five freedoms": freedom from hunger or thirst; freedom from discomfort; freedom from pain, injury, or disease; freedom from fear or distress; and freedom to express normal behavior. It goes without saying that a strong committment to animal welfare is essential to the productivity of a sheep and goat enterprise. It is also important from an ethical standpoint. On this page, welfare-related links are arranged alphabetically according to subject category: behavior, codes of practice, environmental enrichment, euthanasia, handling, pain, safety, slaughter, tail docking, transportation, and welfare.

Applied Sheep Behavior - by Warren Gill
BEHAVE | Utah State University
An introduction to sheep behavior - Illinois Livestock Trail
Livestock Behavior Research | USDA ARS
Sheep Behavior: Sheep 201
[PDF] What does it mean to be a sheep - UC Davis

Codes of Practice
[PDF] Code of practice for the care and handling of sheep - National Farm Animal Care Council, Canada
[PDF] Producer's Guide to Sheep Husbandry Practices - MLA AU
[PDF] Code of practice for the care and handling of goats - National Farm Animal Care Council, Canada
Sheep and goats: welfare regulations (UK)
[PDF] Sheep and goats: Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching
[PDF] Sheep Care Guide - American Sheep Industry

Environmental Enrichment
Comforable quarters for sheep and goats
Enrichment for farm animals - USDA NAL
[PDF] Environmental Enrichment - Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching
[PDF] Goat enrichment - Genzyme Corp.

[PDF] AVMA Guidelines on euthanasia
[PDF] Emergency euthanasia of sheep and goats
Euthanasia (slaughter) - Woolshed 1 blog
Euthanasia action plan for sheep and goats - Ontario, Canada
[PDF] Humane destruction of stock - NSW Australia
[PDF] Humane euthanasia of animals - University of Georgia
On-farm euthanasia of sheep and goats - Ontario, Canada
[PDF] Procedures for Humane Euthanasia

Efficient handling of meat goats
Handling goats - LifeStyle Block NZ
[PDF] Handling large farm animals - Univ. New Hampshire
Handling sheep and lambs: Sheep 201
Low stress livestock handling: articles and links
[PDF] Low stress livestock handling for people and livestock - University of Nebraska
[PDF] Recommended animal handling guidelines - AMI
Sheep handling tips -Lifestyle Block NZ

[PDF] Animal welfare report (painful husbandry procedures) - NAWAC NZ
Distress in farm animals: is it fear, pain, or physical distress?
Measuring pain in farm animals - AHWLA UK
[PDF] Providing pain relief - Organic Farming UK
[PDF] Scientific assessment and management of animal pain

Animal handling safety considerations - University of Missouri
Barnyard animals - Ohio State University
Handling livestock safely - Alberta, Canada
[PDF] Safe sheep handling - New Zealand

Halal slaughter controversy - Mustaqim Islamic Art/Arch. | print
[PDF, poster] Humane (Halal) on-farm slaughter
Humane methods of livestock slaughter: U.S. Code
Maintaing acceptable animal welfare during Kosher or Halal slaughter
Manual for slaughter of small ruminants in developing countries
Recommended ritual slaughter practices -
Religious slaughter and animal welfare: a discussion
Research articles on humane slaughter -

Tail Docking
[PDF] Justifying the appropriate length for docking lambs' tails: a review of the literature
[PDF] Length of docked tail and incidence of rectal prolapse in lambs
[PDF] Stress responses in lambs to different tail docking methods
[PDF] Tail length in lambs: the long and short of it
Welfare of docking and castrating lambs

Handling and transport - AWIC
Information resources for livestock and poultry handling and transport
Livestock movement including transport and export - NSW, Australia
Livsetock Transport Blog
[PDF] Moving sheep and goats from pastoral to agriculture areas - Western, Australia
Tips for transporting cattle and sheep - NSW, Australia | PDF
Transport of livestock - FAO United Nations
Transport, sale barn practices, and humane slaughter of hoofstock and poultry - AVMA

Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) @ NAL
Animal welfare and behavior: goats - Woolshed 1 | 2 | 3 | 4
Animal welfare and behavior: sheep - Woolshed 1 2 | 3
Dr. Temple Grandin's Web Page
[PDF] Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats
IACUC Central
National Farm Animal Care Council - Canada
[PDF] Science-based assessment of animal welfare
Welfare decisions for sheep - NSW, Australia | PDF

All of the links on this page were last verified March 26, 2015 . Please report broken links to Susan Schoenian at

Goat fun
Environmental enrichment at Delaware State University