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"Education is the key to unlock the golden door of freedom."

George Washington Carver

Welfare of sheep and goats

While it is difficult to define animal welfare, the current most widely accepted definition internationally encompasses the "five freedoms": freedom from hunger or thirst; freedom from discomfort; freedom from pain, injury, or disease; freedom from fear or distress; and freedom to express normal behavior. It goes without saying that a strong committment to animal welfare is essential to the productivity of a sheep and goat enterprise. It is also important from an ethical standpoint. On this page, welfare-related links are arranged alphabetically according to subject category: behavior, codes of practice, environmental enrichment, euthanasia, general links, handling, pain, safety, slaughter, tail docking, transportation, and (general) welfare.


[PDF] Applied sheep behavior - University of Tennessee recommended
BEHAVE: Utah State University
Behavior - Extension Goat Handbook
Behavior - GoatWisdom
Behavior: Sheep 201 by Susan Schoenian
[PDF] Factors affecting livestock behavior and performance - BC, Canada
Goat behavior, characteristics, and FYI - Fias Co Farm
An introduction to sheep behavior - Illini SheepNet
Livestock behavior @ Colorado State University
A Review: Understanding Sheep Behavior - SID Research Journal
Sheep behavior: Sheep 101 by Susan Schoenian
Understanding sheep - Ceres Farm
Use sheep behavior to your advantage - Ontario, Canada

Codes of practice

[PDF] Agricultural Animal Health Care Standards (draft) - FASS
[PDF] Animal welfare guidelines for sheep farmers - FAWAC
Code of recommendations and minimum standards (New Zealand)
[PDF] Codes of recommendation for the welfare of sheep (Scotland)
[PDF] Goat Care Practices - UC Davis
Model code of practice for the welfare of animals: goats (Australia) | PDF
Model code of practice for the welfare of animals: sheep (Australia) | PDF
[PDF] Northern Ireland code of recomendations for the welfare of sheep
[PDF] Sheep Care Guide - American Sheep Industry Association
[PDF] Sheep codes of recommendations for the welfare... (UK)

Environmental enrichment

Comforable quarters for sheep and goats
Enrichment for farm animals - USDA NAL
Environmental enrichment for animals used for scientific purposes
[PDF] The role of environmental enrichment - Phoenix Zoo


Animal euthanasia information - Amber Waves
[PDF] AVMA Guidelines on euthanasia
[PDF] The emergency euthanasia of sheep and goats - UC Davis | HTML
Euthanasia (slaughter) - Woolshed 1 blog
Euthanasia action plan for sheep and goats - Ontario, Canada
[PDF] Guidelines for humane euthanasia of animals by firearms
Humane destruction of stock - NSW, Australia | PDF
[PDF] Humane euthanasia of animals - University of Georgia
[PDF] Humane euthanasia of farm animals - Alberta, Canada
[PDF] Humane euthanasia of sick, injured, and/or debilitated livestock
On-farm euthanasia of sheep and goats - Ontario, Canada recommended
[Interactive video] On-farm livestock euthanasia - UC Davis

General links

Alberta Farm Animal Care (AFAC)
Animal Welfare @ DAFF Australia
Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) | farm animals
Dr. Temple Grandin's web page recommended
European Animal Welfare Platform | farm animal welfare
Farm Animal Assessment Associates (FAAA)
Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Council (FAWAC) - Ireland
Farm animal welfare and behavior - Ontario, Canada
Gateway to Farm Animal Welfare - FAO United Nations
Institutional Animal Use & Care Committee (IACUC)
Science-based assessment of animal welfare: farm animals
States' Farm Animal Welfare Statutes - National AgLaw Center  


Animal handling tips - Penn State University
Efficient handling of meat goats by Susan Schoenian
Handling goats - LifeStyle Block NZ
[PDF] Handling large farm animals - University of New Hampshire
Handling sheep - Follow Your Dream Farm
Handling sheep and lambs: Sheep 201 by Susan Schoenian
[PDF] Low stress livestock handling - University of Idaho
Low stress livestock handling @ Managing Wholes
[PDF] Low stress livestock handling on pasture and range

[PDF] Recommended animal handling guidelines - AMI
Sheep handling - Queensland, Australia
Sheep handling - SAC UK
Sheep handling tips -Lifestyle Block NZ


[PDF] Animal welfare report (painful husbandry procedures) - NAWAC NZ
Animal welfare science summit: pain and pain management recommended
[PDF] Assessment of acute pain in farm animals... - J. Anim. Sci.
Distress in farm animals: is it fear, pain, or physical distress?
Guidelines for the recognition and assessment of animal pain
Measuring pain in farm animals - AHWLA UK
Pain and distress in farm animals - AWIC
[PDF] Pain control in food animals - North Dakota State University
Pain in farm animals - Sust. Animal Production
[PDF] Post-castration and tail docking pain alleviation in lambs
[PDF] Providing pain relief - Organic Farming UK
Treating pain and distress in farm animals - AVMA
[PDF] Understanding pain and its relevance to animals - AFAC


Animal handling safety considerations - University of Missouri
Barnyard animals - Ohio State University
[PDF] Handling farm animals safety - Farm Safety Association
Handling livestock safely - Alberta, Canada
[PDF] An information guide on sheep handling - Queensland, Australia
Livestock safety @ Auburn University
[PDF] Sheep safety - Nova Scotia
[PDF] Working safely with livestock - Ohio State University


The Halal slaughter controversy - Mustaqim Islamic Art/Arch. | print
[PDF, poster] Humane (Halal) on-farm slaughter of sheep and goats
Humane methods of livestock slaughter: U.S. Code
Maintaing acceptable animal welfare during Kosher or Halal slaughter
Manual for slaughter of small ruminants in developing countries - FAO
Recommended ritual slaughter practices -
Religious slaughter and animal welfare: a discussion for meat scientists
Research articles on humane slaughter -
A scientific comment on the welfare of sheep slaughtered w/o stunning

Tail docking

AVMA policy: docking of lambs' tails
[PDF] Justifying the appropriate length for docking lambs' tails: a review
[PDF] Length of docked tail and incidence of rectal prolapse in lambs
[PDF] Market lamb docking: the better way - Utah State University
[PDF] Path to resolution regarding show lamb tail docking controversy
[PDF] Stress responses in lambs to different tail docking methods
Tail docking and welfare of sheep - BC, Canada
[PDF] Tail length in lambs: the long and short of it
[PDF] Welfare concerns: tail docking of sheep - UC Davis
The welfare of docking and castrating lambs by Susan Schoenian


Information resources for livestock and poultry handling and transport
Livestock movement including transport and export - NSW, Australia
Livestock transport @ AFAC
[PDF] Moving sheep and goats . . . - Western, Australia
[WORD] Lowering stress of transported goats - Ontario, Canada
Tips for transporting cattle and sheep - NSW, Australia | PDF
Transport of livestock - FAO United Nations

(General) Welfare

Angora goat welfare - LifeStyle Block NZ
Animal welfare - Sheepmeat Council of Australia
Animal welfare and behavior: goats part 1 - Woolshed 1 | 2 | 3 | 4
Animal welfare and behavior: sheep part 1 - Woolshed 1 | 2 | 3
[PDF] Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats - FAO
[PDF] Goat welfare - Manitoba Goat Association
Welfare decisions for sheep - NSW, Australia | PDF
[PDF] Welfare of sheep in the UK - UK Sheep Vet Society
[PDF] Welfare of sheep: review of recent literature - Prairie Swine Centre

Lance, almost a year
Welfare should be a consideration in all animal production systems.